|►||Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid Economy
(PDF; 4,8 MB)
Autor/Herausgeber: Lawrence Lessig
|Lawrence Lessig, the reigning authority on intellectual property in the Internet age, spotlights the newest and possibly the most harmful culture war—a war waged against our kids and others who create and consume art. America’s copyright laws have ceased to perform their original, beneficial role: protecting artists’ creations while allowing them to build on previous creative works. In fact, our system now criminalizes those very actions.
For many, new technologies have made it irresistible to flout these unreasonable and ultimately untenable laws. Some of today’s most talented artists are felons, and so are our kids, who see no reason why they shouldn’t do what their computers and the Web let them do, from burning a copyrighted CD for a friend to “biting” riffs from films, videos, songs, etc and making new art from them.
Criminalizing our children and others is exactly what our society should not do, and Lessig shows how we can and must end this conflict—a war as ill conceived and unwinnable as the war on drugs. By embracing “read-write culture,” which allows its users to create art as readily as they consume it, we can ensure that creators get the support—artistic, commercial, and ethical—that they deserve and need. Indeed, we can already see glimmers of a new hybrid economy that combines the profit motives of traditional business with the “sharing economy” evident in such Web sites as Wikipedia and YouTube. The hybrid economy will become ever more prominent in every creative realm—from news to music—and Lessig shows how we can and should use it to benefit those who make and consume culture.
Remix is an urgent, eloquent plea to end a war that harms our children and other intrepid creative users of new technologies. It also offers an inspiring vision of the post-war world where enormous opportunities await those who view art as a resource to be shared openly rather than a commodity to be hoarded.
(PDF; 8,1 MB)
Autor/Herausgeber: Gerd Leonhard
|Music2.0 is an inspiring and invigorating collection of Music & Media Futurist Gerd Leonhard’s best essays and blog posts on the future of the music industry. The book continues and expands on the ideas and models Gerd presented in his first book “The Future of Music” (co-written with Dave Kusek, published by Berklee Press, 2005), which has become a must-read work within the music industry, worldwide, and was translated into German, Spanish and Italian.
Music2.0 clearly describes what the next generation of music companies will actually look like; hence the use of the term Music2.0, a catch-all phrase derived from the increasingly over-used “Web 2.0.” In this book, Gerd does not mince his words when it’s about spelling things out, and his style is both engaging as well as hard-hitting and provocative.
|►||The Wealth of Networks – How Social Production
Transforms Markets and Freedom
(PDF; 3,6 MB)
Autor/Herausgeber: Yochai Benkler
|With the radical changes in information production that the Internet has introduced, we stand at an important moment of transition, says Yochai Benkler in this thought-provoking book. The phenomenon he describes as social production is reshaping markets, while at the same time offering new opportunities to enhance individual freedom, cultural diversity, political discourse, and justice. But these results are by no means inevitable: a systematic campaign to protect the entrenched industrial information economy of the last century threatens the promise of today’s emerging networked information environment.
In this comprehensive social theory of the Internet and the networked information economy, Benkler describes how patterns of information, knowledge, and cultural production are changing—and shows that the way information and knowledge are made available can either limit or enlarge the ways people can create and express themselves. He describes the range of legal and policy choices that confront us and maintains that there is much to be gained—or lost—by the decisions we make today.
|►||Interaktive Wertschöpfung: Open Innovation, Individualisierung und neue Formen der Arbeitsteilung
(PDF; 2,9 MB)
Autor/Herausgeber: Ralf Reichwald/Frank Piller
|Kunden sind heute nicht nur passive Empfänger und Konsumenten einer vom Hersteller dominierten Wertschöpfung. Vielmehr gestalten viele Kunden Produkte und Dienstleistungen aktiv mit und übernehmen dabei sogar teilweise deren Entwicklung und Herstellung. Diese Wertschöpfungspartnerschaft führt zu neuen Formen der Arbeitsteilung, der Koordination und Organisation von Innovations- und Produktionsprozessen. Zur Organisation arbeitsteiliger Wertschöpfung gibt es bislang zwei wesentliche Alternativen: die hierarchische Koordination im Unternehmen oder die Nutzung des Marktmechanismus über Angebot und Nachfrage. Eine Zwischenform bilden die verschiedenen Varianten von Unternehmensnetzwerken. Die interaktive Wertschöpfung bildet eine dritte Alternative: die Arbeitsteilung zwischen Herstellerunternehmen und Kunden, die zum Wertschöpfungspartner werden. Reichwald/Piller behandeln Entwicklungen wie Peer-Production, Kundeninnovation, Open-Source-Software-Entwicklung, Kunden-Communities oder Web 2.0. Anhand vieler Beispiele und Fallstudien diskutieren sie die wesentlichen Prinzipien und Ansatzpunkte, aber auch die Grenzen der interaktiven Wertschöpfung. Open Innovation und Produktindividualisierung (Mass Customization) werden als konkrete Umsetzungsformen einer interaktiven Wertschöpfung anhand von Praxisbeispielen vorgestellt.”Interaktive Wertschöpfung” richtet sich an die Fachwelt in Wissenschaft und Praxis in den Bereichen Innovationsmanagement, strategisches Management, Organisation und Produktion. Prof. Dr. Prof. h. c. Dr. h. c. Ralf Reichwald ist Professor für Betriebswirtschaftslehre an der Fakultät für Wirtschaftswissenschaften und Inhaber des Lehrstuhls für Betriebswirtschaftslehre – Information, Organisation und Management (IOM) an der TU München. Dr. Frank Piller ist Privatdozent für Betriebswirtschaftslehre an der TU München und Research Fellow an der MIT Sloan School of Management, Cambridge, USA.|
|►||Code: And Other Laws of Cyberspace, Version 2.0
(PDF; 4,3 MB)
Autor/Herausgeber: Lawrence Lessig
|There’s a common belief that cyberspace cannot be regulated – that is, its very essence is immune from the government’s (or anyone else’s) control. “Code”, first published in 2000, argues that this belief is wrong. It is not in the nature of cyberspace to be unregulable; cyberspace has no “nature”. It only has code – the software and hardware that makes cyberspace what it is. That code can create a place of freedom – as the original architecture of the Net did – or a place of oppressive control. Under the influence of commerce, cyberspace is becoming a highly regulable space, where behaviour is much more tightly controlled than in real space. But that’s not inevitable either. We can – we must – choose what kind of cyberspace we want and what freedoms we will guarantee. These choices are all about architecture: about what kind of code will govern cyberspace, and who will control it. In this realm, code is the most significant for of law, and it is up to lawyers, policymakers, and especially citizens to decide what values that code embodies. Since its original publication, this seminal book has earned the status of a minor classic. This second edition, or Version 2.0, has been prepared through the author’s wiki, a web site that allows readers to edit the text, making this the first reader-edited revision of a popular book.|
(PDF; 1,5 MB)
Autor/Herausgeber: Eric von Hippel
|Innovation is rapidly becoming democratized. Users, aided by improvements in computer and communications technology, increasingly can develop their own new products and services. These innovating users—both individuals and firms—often freely share their innovations with others, creating user-innovation communities and a rich intellectual commons. In Democratizing Innovation, Eric von Hippel looks closely at this emerging system of user-centered innovation. He explains why and when users find it profitable to develop new products and services for themselves, and why it often pays users to reveal their innovations freely for the use of all.
The trend toward democratized innovation can be seen in software and information products—most notably in the free and open-source software movement—but also in physical products. Von Hippel’s many examples of user innovation in action range from surgical equipment to surfboards to software security features. He shows that product and service development is concentrated among “lead users,” who are ahead on marketplace trends and whose innovations are often commercially attractive.
Von Hippel argues that manufacturers should redesign their innovation processes and that they should systematically seek out innovations developed by users. He points to businesses—the custom semiconductor industry is one example—that have learned to assist user-innovators by providing them with toolkits for developing new products. User innovation has a positive impact on social welfare, and von Hippel proposes that government policies, including R&D subsidies and tax credits, should be realigned to eliminate biases against it. The goal of a democratized user-centered innovation system, says von Hippel, is well worth striving for. An electronic version of this book is available under a Creative Commons license.
|►||Free Culture: How Big Media Uses Technology and the Law to Lock Down Culture and Control Creativity
(PDF; 2,6 MB)
Autor/Herausgeber: Lawrence Lessig
|Lessig looks at the disturbing legal and commercial trends that threaten to curb the incredible creative potential of the Internet. All innovations are derived from a certain amount of “piracy” of preceding innovations, Lessig argues, and he presents a catalog of technological breakthroughs in film, music, and television as illustrations. Drawing on distinctions between piracy that benefits a single user and harms the owner and piracy that is useful in advancing new content or new ways of doing business, Lessig strongly argues for a balance between the interests of the owner and broader society so that we can continue a “free culture” that encourages innovation rather than a “permission culture” that does not. He reviews an array of legal actions, including the restrictions on peer-to-peer sharing made famous by Napster, and the threat they represent to the kind of openness the law has traditionally allowed and from which the marketplace has benefited. This is a highly accessible and enlightening look at the intersection of commerce, the law, and cyberspace. Vanessa Bush|
|►||The Future of Ideas: The Fate of the Commons in a Connected World
(PDF; 1,3 MB)
Autor/Herausgeber: Lawrence Lessig
|In The Future of Ideas, Lawrence Lessig explains how the Internet revolution has produced a counterrevolution of devastating power and effect. The explosion of innovation we have seen in the environment of the Internet was not conjured from some new, previously unimagined technological magic; instead, it came from an ideal as old as the nation. Creativity flourished there because the Internet protected an innovation commons. The Internet’s very design built a neutral platform upon which the widest range of creators could experiment. The legal architecture surrounding it protected this free space so that culture and information–the ideas of our era–could flow freely and inspire an unprecedented breadth of expression. But this structural design is changing–both legally and technically.|
|►||Unleashing the Ideavirus: Stop Marketing at People! Turn Your Ideas Into Epidemics by Helping Your Customers Do the Marketing for You
(PDF; 0,9 MB)
Autor/Herausgeber: Seth Godin
|Treat a product or service like a human or computer virus, contends online promotion specialist Seth Godin, and it just might become one. In Unleashing the Ideavirus, Godin describes ways to set any viable commercial concept loose among those who are most likely to catch it–and then stand aside as these recipients become infected and pass it on to others who might do the same. “The future belongs to marketers who establish a foundation and process where interested people can market to each other,” he writes. “Ignite consumer networks and then get out of the way and let them talk.”
Godin believes that a solid idea is the best route to success in the new century, but one “that just sits there is worthless.” Through the magic of “word of mouse,” however, the Internet offers a unique opportunity for interested individuals to transmit ideas quickly and easily to others of like mind. Taking up where his previous book Permission Marketing left off, Godin explains in great detail how ideaviruses have been launched by companies such as Napster, Blue Mountain Arts, GeoCities, and Hotmail. He also describes “sneezers” (influential people who spread them), “hives” (populations most willing to receive them), and “smoothness” (the ease with which sneezers can transmit them throughout a hive). In all, an infectious and highly recommended read.